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Interplanetary travel

Going to space is one thing, but making an interplanetary travel is another much more difficult.

Going into space is relatively easy. We do this many times every year. We discovered this technology about a century and a half after we began to make practical use of electricity. While the electric bulb was invented in 1800, the first rocket carrying a satellite was launched in 1957.

On the other hand, we only have technology to travel between planets in our solar system, being impossible to go to planets located near another star, even relatively close.

The distance between the stars is enormous. The space is very large. So how is it possible to travel between planets located in different solar systems?

In the full versionf of the book (De)Constructing Physics ( new physical theory is revealed, making it possible. I suggest you read it.

In this book it is proved that space is discrete and contains energy, and this energy gives it a shape, that inertia is a property of this space and not of matter itself and that time is a function of temperature (the higher the temperature, the faster the time passes, and conversely, the lower the temperature, the slower the time passes, so that in a negative temperature – in Kelvin – the time arrow reverses allowing us to travel back into the past), being the destiny of the Universe a function of the amount of energy they contain.

Of course, this implies that future and past coexist being the future predetermined. Therefore, the predetermined future will interfere with the present to make it real. In this sense, everything exist at the same time and it is only our consciousness that moves in time, which implies that our free will is limited.

You need to read the whole book from chapter one in ascending order to understand everything correctly.

Basically, even traveling at the speed of light, the nearest star is about 4 years away. Therefore, making it impractical to make space travel using current physics. To do it properly you need to use space portals or subspatial travel as explained in the book. Using the subspace we can travel from one place to another instantaneously, without spending time.

Space bending technology helps, but not solve the problem, because this technology can only reduce travel time by a constant factor, not being a very advanced technology when we are talking about space travel, the subspace travel is the only answer.

Any civilization that can arrive in our planet should have developed some technology to make a space travel using the subspace, and must have discovered the theory explained in the book, except if they live within our solar system.

How to make an interplanetary travel using the subspace is a process that uses an enormous amount of energy, because it is necessary to disconnect from the space to be able to move without interference of the inertia, allowing us to quickly accelerate and decelerate. Therefore, the spaceship should be able to produce a lot of energy in a short time to make this travel possible.

Therefore, it is necessary to create a very powerful and reliable power source that produces a lot of energy with little fuel, like an anti-matter reactor.


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Extraterrestrial life in the Bible

I want to use a different approach in this post. If we assume that the Bible is telling the truth – personally, I believe in the Bible only as an ancient book of history, but not as a revelation – we can prove that some intelligent extraterrestrial life interfered in the evolution of life on Earth.

I will show below how the creation story described in the Bible is related to the scientific knowledge we have today.

I will use a chapter on the genesis of the Bible as a starting point.

The text of the Bible was copied from without any editing.

So let’s start with Genesis 1.

  1. In the beginning, when God created the heavens and the earth,
  2. the earth was a formless wasteland, and darkness covered the abyss, while a mighty wind swept over the waters.
  3. Then God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light.

The moment of the Big Boom, usually called the Big Bang (but the sound of the explosions is not represented as a bang, but boom, bang is for weapons).

The water here is probably just liquid hydrogen, which is the most common element of the Universe.

  1. God saw how good the light was. God then separated the light from the darkness.
  2. God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” Thus evening came, and morning followed–the first day.

The Earth began to spin around its axis.

  1. Then God said, “Let there be a dome in the middle of the waters, to separate one body of water from the other.” And so it happened:
  2. God made the dome, and it separated the water above the dome from the water below it.
  3. God called the dome “the sky.” Evening came, and morning followed–the second day.

The atmosphere emerges.

  1. Then God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered into a single basin, so that the dry land may appear.” And so it happened: the water under the sky was gathered into its basin, and the dry land appeared.
  2. God called the dry land “the earth,” and the basin of the water he called “the sea.” God saw how good it was.

The continents emerge as a result of volcanism.

  1. Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth vegetation: every kind of plant that bears seed and every kind of fruit tree on earth that bears fruit with its seed in it.” And so it happened:
  2. the earth brought forth every kind of plant that bears seed and every kind of fruit tree on earth that bears fruit with its seed in it. God saw how good it was.
  3. Evening came, and morning followed–the third day.

Well, here we need to disagree with the Bible, life having started in the water – as we have explained in previous posts – unless our planet was being colonized by an intelligent extraterrestrial form of life that preferred to send the plants first. This may be the case described here.

  1. Then God said: “Let there be lights in the dome of the sky, to separate day from night. Let them mark the fixed times, the days and the years,
  2. and serve as luminaries in the dome of the sky, to shed light upon the earth.” And so it happened:
  3. God made the two great lights, the greater one to govern the day, and the lesser one to govern the night; and he made the stars.
  4. God set them in the dome of the sky, to shed light upon the earth,
  5. to govern the day and the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. God saw how good it was.
  6. Evening came, and morning followed–the fourth day.

The Moon and stars become visible. The volcanism was greatly reduced leaving the atmosphere clean.

  1. Then God said, “Let the water teem with an abundance of living creatures, and on the earth let birds fly beneath the dome of the sky.” And so it happened:
  2. God created the great sea monsters and all kinds of swimming creatures with which the water teems, and all kinds of winged birds. God saw how good it was,
  3. and God blessed them, saying, “Be fertile, multiply, and fill the water of the seas; and let the birds multiply on the earth.”
  4. Evening came, and morning followed–the fifth day.

Aquatic life emerges. As we said, this must happen before life on earth, but the Bible reversed which suggests that the plants were implanted here by an intelligent extraterrestrial form of life.

  1. Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth all kinds of living creatures: cattle, creeping things, and wild animals of all kinds.” And so it happened:
  2. God made all kinds of wild animals, all kinds of cattle, and all kinds of creeping things of the earth. God saw how good it was.

Until here, God created everything just because he desired. He needs nothing to create the Sun, the Earth, the Moon, the stars and all plants, fishes and animals.

Up to this point, God created everything just because he wished. He did not need anything to create the Sun, Earth, Moon, stars and all plants, fishes and animals.

  1. Then God said: “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. Let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, and the cattle, and over all the wild animals and all the creatures that crawl on the ground.”
  2. God created man in his image; in the divine image he created him; male and female he created them.
  3. God blessed them, saying: “Be fertile and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it. Have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, and all the living things that move on the earth.”
  4. God also said: “See, I give you every seed-bearing plant all over the earth and every tree that has seed-bearing fruit on it to be your food;
  5. and to all the animals of the land, all the birds of the air, and all the living creatures that crawl on the ground, I give all the green plants for food.” And so it happened.
  6. God looked at everything he had made, and he found it very good. Evening came, and morning followed–the sixth day.

Animals emerge on earth and man is created in the image of God. But here is a problem. The God who created the Universe has no shape, because in the beginning the earth was formless wasteland, it is clear that the God who created man was another God: an intelligent extraterrestrial life form.

Maybe the same that sows all kinds of life here, explaining why life first appeared on earth instead of in the water.

Now Genesis 2.

  1. Thus the heavens and the earth and all their array were completed.
  2. Since on the seventh day God was finished with the work he had been doing, he rested on the seventh day from all the work he had undertaken.
  3. So God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work he had done in creation.
  4. Such is the story of the heavens and the earth at their creation. At the time when the LORD God made the earth and the heavens–
  5. while as yet there was no field shrub on earth and no grass of the field had sprouted, for the LORD God had sent no rain upon the earth and there was no man to till the soil,
  6. but a stream was welling up out of the earth and was watering all the surface of the ground–
  7. the LORD God formed man out of the clay of the ground and blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and so man became a living being.
  8. Then the LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and he placed there the man whom he had formed.
  9. Out of the ground the LORD God made various trees grow that were delightful to look at and good for food, with the tree of life in the middle of the garden and the tree of the knowledge of good and bad.
  10. A river rises in Eden to water the garden; beyond there it divides and becomes four branches.
  11. The name of the first is the Pishon; it is the one that winds through the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.
  12. The gold of that land is excellent; bdellium and lapis lazuli are also there.
  13. The name of the second river is the Gihon; it is the one that winds all through the land of Cush.
  14. The name of the third river is the Tigris; it is the one that flows east of Asshur. The fourth river is the Euphrates.
  15. The LORD God then took the man and settled him in the garden of Eden, to cultivate and care for it.
  16. The LORD God gave man this order: “You are free to eat from any of the trees of the garden
  17. except the tree of knowledge of good and bad. From that tree you shall not eat; the moment you eat from it you are surely doomed to die.”
  18. The LORD God said: “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a suitable partner for him.”
  19. So the LORD God formed out of the ground various wild animals and various birds of the air, and he brought them to the man to see what he would call them; whatever the man called each of them would be its name.
  20. The man gave names to all the cattle, all the birds of the air, and all the wild animals; but none proved to be the suitable partner for the man.
  21. So the LORD God cast a deep sleep on the man, and while he was asleep, he took out one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh.
  22. The LORD God then built up into a woman the rib that he had taken from the man. When he brought her to the man,
  23. the man said: “This one, at last, is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; This one shall be called ‘woman,’ for out of ‘her man’ this one has been taken.”
  24. That is why a man leaves his father and mother and clings to his wife, and the two of them become one body.
  25. The man and his wife were both naked, yet they felt no shame.

Here we can see something else interesting.

Why would the God who was able to create everything – the Sun, Earth, Moon, stars and all plants, fishes, and animals – would need to make a surgery using anesthesia on the man he had finished creating, and remove a rib to create a woman, instead of making her out of the clay of the ground and blew into his nostrils the breath of life again?

Of course, they are completely different gods. The God who created man is far less powerful than the God who created everything else.

It is clear that man was created mixing the genetic code of an early version of man with the genetic code of this God to create a better version of man: a genetic experiment.

Currently we know that inside our bones we have pluripotent stem cells that can become any type of cell in our body. This explains why having surgery to remove an Adam’s rib, using anesthesia so Adam does not suffer during the procedure.

It also explains why this God needed the rib to make a woman genetically compatible with the man he had made based on an earlier version of the man that existed before, mixing his own genetic code. So this God used the rib to make a human clone by replacing only the sexual chromosome Y with another X inside the pluripotent stem cells, to use them to create a new blastocyst that could generate a viable fetus and could be implanted in one early version of a woman who would function as a belly for rent. In fact, it explains why create the man first: man has both the Y and X chromosomes, while the woman has only the X chromosomes.

In Genesis 3, Adam and Eve were cast out of Eden for eating from the tree of knowledge, but there are nothing else that interests us there, except that, like God said in Genesis 1, 28 to man, “Be fertile and multiply”, of course the original sin is not sex, but ambition for knowledge.

However, there are still some unanswered questions:

  • Why did God plant the two trees – the tree of life and tree of knowledge – in Eden?
  • Did God want to know if man would prefer a long life or knowledge?
  • And how did the serpent know that the fruit of tree of knowledge would not kill the man and the woman?
  • Had the serpent itself eaten of the fruit?
  • In this case, why were animals allowed to eat those fruits but not man?

In Genesis 4, be clear that Adam and Eve are not the first humans, but only the most advanced humans. Take a look:

  1. The man had relations with his wife Eve, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, “I have produced a man with the help of the LORD.”
  2. Next she bore his brother Abel. Abel became a keeper of flocks, and Cain a tiller of the soil.
  3. In the course of time Cain brought an offering to the LORD from the fruit of the soil,
  4. while Abel, for his part, brought one of the best firstlings of his flock. The LORD looked with favor on Abel and his offering,
  5. but on Cain and his offering he did not. Cain greatly resented this and was crestfallen.
  6. So the LORD said to Cain: “Why are you so resentful and crestfallen?
  7. If you do well, you can hold up your head; but if not, sin is a demon lurking at the door: his urge is toward you, yet you can be his master.”
  8. Cain said to his brother Abel, “Let us go out in the field.” When they were in the field, Cain attacked his brother Abel and killed him.
  9. Then the LORD asked Cain, “Where is your brother Abel?” He answered, “I do not know. Am I my brother’s keeper?”
  10. The LORD then said: “What have you done! Listen: your brother’s blood cries out to me from the soil!
  11. Therefore you shall be banned from the soil that opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand.
  12. If you till the soil, it shall no longer give you its produce. You shall become a restless wanderer on the earth.”
  13. Cain said to the LORD: “My punishment is too great to bear.
  14. Since you have now banished me from the soil, and I must avoid your presence and become a restless wanderer on the earth, anyone may kill me at sight.”
  15. Not so!” the LORD said to him. “If anyone kills Cain, Cain shall be avenged sevenfold.” So the LORD put a mark on Cain, lest anyone should kill him at sight.
  16. Cain then left the LORD’S presence and settled in the land of Nod, east of Eden.
  17. Cain had relations with his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch. Cain also became the founder of a city, which he named after his son Enoch.
  18. To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad became the father of Mehujael; Mehujael became the father of Methusael, and Methusael became the father of Lamech.
  19. Lamech took two wives; the name of the first was Adah, and the name of the second Zillah.
  20. Adah gave birth to Jabal, the ancestor of all who dwell in tents and keep cattle.
  21. His brother’s name was Jubal; he was the ancestor of all who play the lyre and the pipe.
  22. Zillah, on her part, gave birth to Tubalcain, the ancestor of all who forge instruments of bronze and iron. The sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.
  23. Lamech said to his wives: “Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lamech, listen to my utterance: I have killed a man for wounding me, a boy for bruising me.
  24. If Cain is avenged sevenfold, then Lamech seventy-sevenfold.”
  25. Adam again had relations with his wife, and she gave birth to a son whom she called Seth. “God has granted me more offspring in place of Abel,” she said, “because Cain slew him.”
  26. To Seth, in turn, a son was born, and he named him Enosh. At that time men began to invoke the LORD by name.

How could you explain that Cain could have a wife away from where his parents were living in the land of Nod? He left alone – since Eve had only two sons -, which means that she needs to be a member of that earlier version of humans used as the basis for creating Adam.

Another question: Who was the man and the boy that Lamec killed? Even though you think that Cain left God’s presence with a wife – assuming he had unnamed sisters in the Bible -, you can not explain who are these two that Lamec killed, because they are not of his family, for every man of his family are named.

Perhaps this is the explanation and motivation for the descendants of Cain to be considered impure. They mingled with an earlier version of less evolved humans than themselves.

Yet these early versions of humans may have been made by the same God while he attempted to create a perfect human being. By the way, many american indian cultures speak of 3 to 6 versions of humans before ours.

Based on all that was exposed above, we must consider that the God who created man is not the same one who created the Universe, but an intelligent form of life that arose on another planet and that came to colonize the Earth, usually called an ancient astronaut.

In fact, this is what is described in the Bible.

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Searching for extraterrestrial life – Part 2

In this post we will focus on finding the intelligent life in outer space.

Unfortunately, it is not possible to distinguish between an intelligent life and another non-intelligent life away from us, except for the technology used by the former. So let’s focus on finding the technologically advanced intelligent life in this post.

As we said in the previous post, the prerequisites are more restrictive if we are to find planets where technologically advanced intelligent life can emerge. The main thing is that we need to have a solid surface and a liquid surface also, which excludes the large gaseous planets from our list, leaving as options in our own solar system only: Venus, Earth, Mars and perhaps some satellites and dwarf planets.

We consider as a technologically advanced intelligent life the one that have, at least, a language, a writing system, a radio communication technology and a transport technology (such as chariots, carriages, cars, boats, ships, submarines, airplanes or spaceships). Which implies knowledge about eletricity and probably a mass production system.

Basically our proposal to find technologically advanced intelligent life is the same as in our proposal presented in the previous post, but replacing light by radio broadcasts.

Any technologically advanced intelligent life will need to create some communication technology and will use radio waves to transfer signals like voice and data from one place to another far away. These radio waves will continue to propagate through the Universe and can be captured by us.

So the goal here is to find radio emissions that can be established as having origin near the orbit of the planet and that can not be explained by natural processes, such as radioactive decay, such as our own artificial (man-made) radio emissions, .

If we find artificial radio emissions coming from near the orbit of the planet, it is because we have some form of intelligent life living there.

To precisely determine the origin of an artificial radio emission it is necessary to capture it by several radio telescopes all over the world in order to triangulate precisely the position of the radio source. This is the main difficulty in doing this search. We need to point out not just one radio telescope, but several radio telescopes, to the same sky position, away from each other, to prevent our own emission interfering with the results.

But any signal that is captured by all of them at the same time must have come from far away from us, because if it were generated near us, they should be captured at different times by the antennas. Ideally, these antennas should be located on different continents around the globe instead of many antennas in the same location.



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Searching for extraterrestrial life – Part 1

As we discussed in the previous post, to increase our chance to find life, we should look for planets where we can find a liquid surface and near to these planets. We are unlikely to find life away from a liquid planet.

But the liquid does not mean water. At least not only water, but any liquid, including methane.

Of course, that planets with liquid water will be more likely to find life more similar to ourselves, but we must keep in mind that there may be forms of life that are completely different from ourselves, including some based on silicon rather than carbon.

If we was searching for simple lives like bacteria and viruses, we must include very cold planets in our portfolio. In our solar system all planets except Mercury must be included. A solid surface is not needed to allow these organisms to emerge, only a liquid surface that can be composed of gas under pressure, making Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus possible candidates as well.

So, when we was searching for extraterrestrial life outside our solar system, we need to consider not only planets with solid surface and liquid water but those with solid surface and any liquid surface and large gaseous planets, including those very cold to have liquid water and even those too hot too, if the pressure of your atmosphere can create a liquid surface somewhere on the planet.

To find places that can support intelligent life the prerequisites are a bit more restrictive. We will discuss this in our next post.

But the question is what to search for on those planets that may suggest that some life is living there?

Should we search for organic components in the atmosphere?

It may be a target, of course, but as we discussed in our previous post, these components can be made by chemical reactions inside the planet, but this quest excludes the possibility that we find life based on silicon or life forms completely different from what we know.

What to search for then?

Light is the answer.

On Earth we have bioluminescent organisms and the light they produce is totally different from sunlight. We have a lot of organisms that produce light, including some algae and the light reflected by the plants also differ from the sunlight.

The hard thing to do is that we need to separate the light reflected by the planet from its own star from that produced within the planet itself. If we find in the middle of the light reflected by the planet radiation of a quality or color different from that emitted by the star, that light can only be produced by the life inside the planet.

To do this, we need to compare the composition of the frequency of the light emitted by the star with the composition of the frequency of the light reflected by the planet and subtract the effect of its atmosphere and any solid and liquid surface that can exist in the planet and the difference is the effect of the life there. A simple and beautiful solution.

This is our best chance to search for life in outer space away from us and it should be our choice, at least before we can make space travel and go there to check, because it is easy to implement and is unquestionable and undoubtedly, being scientifically very solid.

To gain experience on it, we should try to use this technics to infer the presence of life on the planets and satellites in our own solar system, including the Earth where we know that the life exists.

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How and why the life emerge?

Life is the result of evolution.

We generally think that only living beings can evolve but, in fact, remember that, like we have defined, evolution is a process of increasing complexity. In this sense, even inanimate matter can evolve. For example, when the methane becomes ethane as a result of a chemical process, that is an evolution.

Keeping this in mind, it is easy for life to emerge anywhere in the Universe where a liquid environment is available. The liquid medium facilitates the chemical reactions by dissolving the reactants. Usually we think only about water as a liquid, but it is not necessary. Any liquid can do this, like methane or any other.

Over time, simple substances, such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen, must evolve to produce proteins and they will evolve to produce more complex molecules, such as RNA and DNA.

On the other hand, the components of cells, such as mitochondria, may be unique to the cells that have emerged on our planet. Of course, extraterrestrial cells must have another structure to replace mitochondria with the same function. The same can occur with other components of our cells.

Planets without liquid environment probably will have no life unless life was implanted there by a meteor coming from a planet with life or by an intelligent life with space travel capability.

It is clear that complex lives that came from different planets may be completely different as to the shape and function of their internal organs, although externally they are similar.

But why does all this occurs?

The answer is simple but controversial.

Evolution is the response of the Universe to compensate for the increase in entropy that results from any physical process to maintain the universe’s entropy unchanged.

Keep in mind that in a closed system the entropy must remain unchanged because any increment in one part of this system needs to be compensated with a reduction elsewhere. If our Universe had its entropy increased, it would entail energy gain.

Imagine a box with air inside. If we move 3/4 of this air to one part of this box the rest of the box should have the other 1/4. In the first part the entropy was increased, but in the second the entropy was reduced, but in sum the entropy of the whole system is exactly the same.

When simple substances react to make more complex substances the entropy is reduced, being entropy the measure the disorder of a physical system. The sum of the decrease in entropy caused by these reactions should compensate for the increase in entropy of the physical process related to the event.

The same occurs in the process of fusion within a star. When two hydrogen atoms merge to create a helium atom, the entropy inside the star is reduced, but the released energy compensates for that reduction and maintains the entropy unchanged.

In this sense, chemical evolution plus biological evolution should reduce entropy at the same rate as the physical process increases the entropy to have a null result, while the physical process that reduces the entropy, like fusion, releases energy that will keep the entropy unchanged.

That is why life emerges.

Life is the final result of the process of chemical evolution.

That is how life emerges.


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Analyzing the language and writing

Any intelligent organism need of a rich language to can transmit the knowledge between members of the group. If each member had to discover all the knowledge by himself again, it will be a big limitation to until where the knowledge can evolve.

The language should contain concepts of quantity, size, distance, measure, time, actions and nouns, at least and can be based on sounds or gestures.

A rich language is a prerequisite to any form of life that intend to conquer the space.

Of course, have a rich language is not enough. It is necessary to register the knowledge not only to facilitate the query and retrieve but to avoid loss and adulteration. To do this some form of writing is necessary.

The form of writing can be based on an alphabet (used to represent sounds, words and ideas) or on pictograms/ideograms/logograms (where each symbol represents an icon or idea or word).

The alphabet-based representation is more flexible and easy to learn, but less concise than the pictographic representation.


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Analyzing the body shape

The body shape of an organism should conform with the needs of this organism.

To any intelligent organism as less energy spent at locomotion better, then, this organism will reduce the locomotion structures to the minimum necessary that let the organism move and capture the necessary food to survive.

We should have in mind that as more structures to locomotion bigger the space on the brain used to coordinate the movement of these parts, reducing the space available to the abstract think. Therefore, more structures, less intelligence.

In the case of an intelligent organism that intend make a space travel the requisites will be even larger, because they need to have ability to make and use tools, a good motor coordination and capacity to carry objects of various formats from one place to another.

Based on this principle lets imagine an organism with only one structure that can be used to move or capture the food. What is the matter with this configuration? Well, firstly, or the organism moves or capture the food but not both at the same time. Then, to capture the food the organism need to move to a place where the food is or go to a good place and stay there, static, waiting the food pass near enough to be captured. This organism could not climb trees because have only one structure to grab and when this organism need move it upward will fall down, making only possible to organism eat things that can be found at ground level. You can deduce that this configuration is very limiting. Therefore, we should think about at least two structures to the same function.

Based on the previous paragraph, we can imagine that an intelligent organism should have two legs and two arms or four paws (while the front paws are capable to catch things the rear paws are used just to propel the body). But for that organisms that intend to make a space travel two legs and two arms are requested.

In the case where the organism need catch things with various formats an opponent finger is an advantage, such as in the last case described above.

Why not two legs and four arms? Simple. Because the benefits don’t compesate the extra cost at energy to sustain it and the extra space on the brain required to control.

Why not four legs and two arms? Same reason.

Therefore, a body shape like ourselves (two legs, two arms, a head and upright posture) should be the best option to any form of life that are capable to create technology and make a space travel, but differences in height, weight, strength, power and proportion should exists and will be determined by the environmental variables of the planet where the organism emerged and lives.

On planets with a heavy atmosphere or intense gravity those organisms should have strong muscles and low height, while on planets with a slim atmosphere and low gravity those organisms can have weak muscles and big height.



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